Relevance of N6-methyladenosine regulators for transcriptome: Implications for development and the cardiovascular system.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant and well-studied internal modification of messenger RNAs among the various RNA modifications in eukaryotic cells. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized to regulate non-coding RNAs. The dynamic and reversible nature of m6A is ensured by the precise and coordinated activity of specific proteins able to insert ("write"), bind ("read") or remove ("erase") the m6A modification from coding and non-coding RNA molecules. Mounting evidence suggests a pivotal role for m6A in prenatal and postnatal development and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present review we summarise and discuss the major functions played by m6A RNA methylation and its components particularly referring to the cardiovascular system. We present the methods used to study m6A and the most abundantly methylated RNA molecules. Finally, we highlight the possible involvement of the m6A mark in cardiovascular disease as well as the need for further studies to better describe the mechanisms of action and the potential therapeutic role of this RNA modification.