Interactions between plasma homocysteine and arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling individuals: The Maine-Syracuse Study.
Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with kidney disease. However, few, if any, studies have examined homocysteine in relation to arterial stiffness, with stratification by the presence or absence of early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to examine prospective associations between tHcy and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in persons with and without early-stage CKD in a sample of community-living individuals free from end-stage renal disease, dialysis, stroke and dementia. We conducted a prospective study with 498 participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (mean age 61 years). Levels of tHcy were positively related to PWV measured 4-5 years later for participants with early-stage CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2)). Statistical adjustment was made for multiple confounders, including demographic factors, PWV-related variables and cardiovascular risk factors (b=4.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.23-8.31, P=0.04). These associations were not observed in persons free from CKD. Plasma tHcy is an important predictor of arterial stiffness, as indexed by PWV, in community-living individuals with modest CKD.