Emerging cellular targets for influenza antiviral agents.
- Clinical and Applied Virology
At the global level, influenza A virus (IAV) is considered a major health threat because it causes significant morbidity. Different treatment and prevention options have been developed; however, these are insufficient in the face of recent IAV outbreaks. In particular, available antiviral agents have limited effectiveness owing to IAV resistance to these virus-directed drugs. Recent advances in understanding of IAV replication have revealed a number of cellular drug targets that counteract viral drug resistance. This review summarizes current knowledge on IAV replication with a focus on emerging cellular drug targets. Interestingly, for many of these targets, compounds for which safety testing has been carried out in humans are available. It is possible that some of these compounds, such as inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, proteasome, importin alpha5 or protein kinase C, will be used for treatment of IAV infections after careful evaluation in human primary cells and severely ill flu patients.