Dietary modulation alters susceptibility to Listeria Monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium with or without a gut microbiota.
Food safety has considerably improved worldwide, yet infections with foodborne human enteric pathogens, such as Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp., still cause numerous hospitalizations and fatalities. Since dietary alterations, including fiber deficiency, might impact the colonization resistance mediated by the gut microbiome, studying the diet-microbiome-pathogen axis holds promise in further understanding the pathogenesis mechanisms. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model containing a 14-member synthetic human gut microbiota (14SM), we have previously shown that dietary fiber deprivation promotes proliferation of mucin-degrading bacteria, leading to a microbiome-mediated erosion of the colonic mucus barrier, which results in an increased susceptibility toward the rodent enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Here, we sought to understand how a low-fiber diet affects susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by using our 14SM gnotobiotic mouse model in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse backgrounds, respectively. Intriguingly, and in contrast to our results with C. rodentium, we observed that depriving mice of dietary fiber protected them from infections with both pathogens, compared to mice fed a standard chow. The microbiome delayed the overall pathogenicity compared to the onset of disease observed in germfree control mice. Nevertheless, we observed the same effect of diet on germfree mice, suggesting that the susceptibility is directly driven by the diet itself even in the absence of the gut microbiome. Our study points out an important observation, namely, that dietary fiber plays a crucial role in either the host's susceptibility, the virulence of these pathogens, or both. It would be judicious to design and interpret future studies on this basis. IMPORTANCE The human enteric pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium are employed as classical models in rodent hosts to understand the pathogenesis mechanisms of foodborne pathogens. Research in the past decade has stressed the importance of the gut microbial composition in modulating susceptibility to these pathogens. The results of our study-using gnotobiotic mice and germfree control animals-additionally suggest that the dietary fiber components can dominate the impact of enteropathogenic virulence over the pathogenicity-modulating properties of the gut microbiome. The significance of our research is that there is a need to carefully choose a certain chow when performing the enteropathogen-associated mouse experiments and to cautiously match the rodent diets when trying to replicate experiments across different laboratories. Finally, our data underscore the importance of using germfree control animals to study these pathogens, as our findings would have been prone to misinterpretation in the absence of these controls.