Deep sequencing of a recurrent oligodendroglioma and the derived xenografts reveals new insights into the evolution of human oligodendroglioma and candidate driver genes.
We previously reported the establishment of a rare xenograft derived from a recurrent oligodendroglioma with 1p/19q codeletion. Here, we analyzed in detail the exome sequencing datasets from the recurrent oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III, recurrent O(2010)) and the first-generation xenograft (xenograft(1)). Somatic SNVs and small InDels (n = 80) with potential effects at the protein level in recurrent O(2010) included variants in IDH1 (NM_005896:c.395G>A; p. Arg132His), FUBP1 (NM_003902:c.1307_1310delTAGA; p.Ile436fs), and CIC (NM_015125:c.4421T>G; p.Val1474Gly). All but 2 of these 80 variants were also present in xenograft(1), along with 7 new variants. Deep sequencing of the 87 SNVs and InDels in the original tumor (WHO grade III, primary O(2005)) and in a second-generation xenograft (xenograft(2)) revealed that only 11 variants, including IDH1 (NM_005896:c.395G>A; p. Arg132His), PSKH1 (NM_006742.2:c.650G>A; p.Arg217Gln), and SNX12 (NM_001256188:c.470G>A; p.Arg157His), along with a variant in the TERT promoter (C250T, NM_198253.2: c.-146G>A), were already present in primary O(2005). Allele frequencies of the 11 variants were calculated to assess their potential as putative driver genes. A missense change in NDST4 (NM_022569:c.2392C>G; p.Leu798Val) on 4q exhibited an increasing allele frequency (~ 20%, primary O(2005), 80%, recurrent O(2010) and 100%, xenograft(1)), consistent with a selection event. Sequencing of NDST4 in a cohort of 15 oligodendrogliomas, however, revealed no additional cases with potential protein disrupting variants. Our analysis illuminated a tumor evolutionary series of events, which included 1p/19q codeletion, IDH1 R132H, and TERT C250T as early events, followed by loss of function of NDST4 and mutations in FUBP1 and CIC as late events.